(Study Outline sourced from “The System Bible Study” – “The Book of Life” [Zondervan])
9. Jesus’ Second Appearance before Pilate (Friday, About Sunrise – Jn.19:14)
This account recorded by all four gospels reflects various aspects of the trial that resulted in the death by crucifixion of our Lord Jesus Christ. The records of Mark and Matthew are very similar in content, while Luke and John give more details of the trial. It was customary at the Feast for the governor to release a prisoner of the people’s choice, and Pilate presented the names of Barabbas and Jesus, no doubt hoping that they would choose Jesus to be released, but they chose Barabbas.
Luke records that Pilate called the chief priests, rulers, and the people together and declared “I have examined him in your presence and have found no basis for your charges against him. Neither has Herod…he has done nothing to deserve death.”, but they all demanded Barabbas’ release and that Jesus be crucified. Pilate then commanded that Jesus be beaten by the soldiers who also mocked Him .
In a second attempt to release Jesus “Pilate appealed to them again.” John adding that Pilate said, “Here is the man!” and again they shouted, “crucify!”
Pilate then attempts for the third time while John states that Pilate responded to their cry for crucifixion by saying “You take him and crucify him. As for me, I find no basis for a charge against him.”. The leaders of the people then confront Pilate that being condemned by their law Jesus must be put to death because He claimed to be The Son of God. Becoming increasingly more afraid Pilate inquired of Jesus “Where do you come from?” to which Jesus gave no answer, and in response to Pilate’s threat of his judgmental power, Jesus replied “You would have no power over me if it were not given to you from above. Therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin.”. Pilate now realizes the dilemma that he faces and continues his attempt to free Jesus only to be further challenged in regards to his allegiance to Caesar “If you let this man go, you are no friend of Caesar. Anyone who claims to be a king opposes Caesar.” they shouted. .
Finally Pilate had Jesus brought before him as he sat in the judgment seat and it is here that we find an incident recorded only by Matthew; “While Pilate was sitting on the judge’s seat, his wife sent him this message: ‘Don’t have anything to do with that innocent man, for I have suffered a great deal today in a dream because of him.’” . Because of the insistence of the leaders and the crowd of people to release Barabbas and crucify Jesus, Matthew further states, “When Pilate saw that he was getting nowhere, but that instead an uproar was starting, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd. “I am innocent of this man’s blood,” he said. “It is your responsibility!” to which they responded “Let his blood be on us and on our children!” not really understanding what they were saying.
John records that “It was the day of Preparation of Passover Week, about the sixth hour.” and there may be some confusion in regards to the time as stated by John compared to Mark. The NIV Study Notes suggests that John could have been using Roman time setting Jesus’ appearance before Pilate at 6:00 AM and the crucifixion at 9:00 AM (the third hour – Jewish time) in agreement with Mark. We see, however, that all attempts by Pilate to release Jesus failed, and “Finally Pilate handed him over to them to be crucified. So the soldiers took charge of Jesus.”.
Little did the leaders and the people realize the truth of their statement “We have no king but Caesar..” for they rejected and crucified their Messiah and have been under the control of Gentile kings and rulers ever since.
10. Jesus Mocked By The Soldiers (Between 6:00 & 9:00 AM on Friday)
John’s account states that the soldiers had put a purple robe and a crown of thorns on Jesus during the trial; both Mark and Matthew record this as a separate incident after Pilate had handed over Jesus to the soldiers to be crucified. Matthew’s detail describes: “They stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him, and then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on his head. They put a staff in his right hand and knelt in front of him and mocked him. “Hail, king of the Jews!” they said. They spit on him, and took the staff and struck him on the head again and again.”” .
11. On The Way To The Cross (Friday Before 9:00 AM)
After being charged, Jesus “Carrying his own cross, he went out to the place of the Skull (which in Aramaic is called Golgotha).”. Sometime along the way He became too weak to continue carrying His cross and Simon (from Cyrene in Libya) was forced by the soldiers to carry the cross the rest of the way. Luke’s account states that a large number of people, “…including women who mourned and wailed for him.” followed Him. Turning to them Jesus said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. For the time will come when you will say, ‘Blessed are the barren women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!’ Then “‘they will say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!” ‘For if men do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?” .
Our lord Jesus is here indicating a coming Roman siege and subsequent invasion and destruction of the city and the Temple by the Romans bringing about a time of immense suffering. Furthermore, if their treatment of their Messiah is of such “..when the tree is green..”, what will be the result for them when their Messiah is removed from them and they suffer for their rejection in their “dry” period .
“When they came to the place called the Skull, there they crucified him, along with the criminals– one on his right, the other on his left.” . It should be noted that none of the accounts make mention of a “hill”, they all refer to a “place”. The Latin for “skull” is “Calvaria”, hence the name “Calvary”; while the Aramaic for “skull” is “Golgotha” (NIV Study Notes).